The Art of Incubation: Hatching Poultry Eggs Successfully

When you think of hatching poultry eggs, you might conjure up images of fluffy little chicks breaking out of their shells. It’s a marvel of nature and a rewarding experience for anyone interested in raising poultry. However, successfully hatching poultry eggs requires more than just placing them under a heat source and waiting.

It’s a delicate process that involves careful monitoring, attention to detail, and a touch of artistry. In this guide, we’ll explore the intricacies of hatching poultry eggs and uncover the secrets to a successful hatch.

You may also want to read about mainting proper incubator humidity.

The Importance of Incubation

Incubation is the process by which fertilized poultry eggs are artificially kept at the ideal conditions necessary for embryo development until they hatch. This is crucial for several reasons:

Hatching Poultry Eggs
Hatching Poultry Eggs is Rewarding.

1. Control and Predictability

Incubation allows us to have control over the hatching process. Natural incubation, where a hen sits on her eggs, is subject to numerous variables such as weather conditions, the mother’s temperament, and the risk of predators. With artificial incubation, we can create a stable environment to maximize our chances of success.

2. Efficient Use of Resources

Artificial incubation enables us to hatch a large number of eggs simultaneously. This is particularly important for commercial poultry operations, but it can also be beneficial for small-scale poultry keepers who want to ensure a higher success rate.

3. Disease Control

When hens incubate eggs naturally, there’s a risk of transmitting diseases to the embryos. With proper hygiene and sanitation, artificial incubation minimizes this risk, helping to produce healthier chicks.

Choosing the Right Incubator

The first step in the art of incubation is selecting the right incubator. Several factors should influence your choice:

1. Type of Incubator

There are two primary types of incubators: still-air and forced-air. Still-air incubators rely on natural convection to circulate heat, while forced-air incubators use fans to ensure uniform temperature and humidity distribution. Forced-air incubators are generally more reliable and produce better results.

2. Capacity

Consider how many eggs you want to hatch at once. Incubators come in various sizes, so choose one that suits your needs. A small incubator may suffice for hobbyists, while larger ones are suitable for commercial purposes.

3. Temperature and Humidity Control

Ensure that the incubator you choose allows precise temperature and humidity control. Temperature fluctuations and humidity imbalances can significantly impact the hatch rate.

Preparing the Eggs

Before you place your eggs in the incubator, there are essential preparations to make:

Hatching Poultry
Hatching Poultry Eggs is Fun!

1. Egg Selection

Choose fertile eggs from healthy, disease-free birds. Collect eggs regularly and store them at a consistent temperature (around 55°F or 13°C) and humidity (60-70%) until you’re ready to incubate them.

2. Candling

Candling is the process of shining a light through the egg to check for signs of fertility and embryo development. This should be done before placing the eggs in the incubator. Remove any eggs that are infertile or show signs of abnormal development.

3. Marking

Mark each egg with an ‘X’ on one side and an ‘O’ on the other. This helps you keep track of the egg’s rotation during incubation, ensuring uniform development.

The Incubation Process

Once your eggs are prepared, it’s time to start the incubation process:

1. Setting Up the Incubator

Follow the manufacturer’s instructions to set up your incubator. Ensure that it’s stable and running at the correct temperature and humidity levels before placing the eggs inside.

2. Egg Placement

Place the eggs in the incubator with the ‘X’ side facing up. This ensures that you can easily monitor their rotation. Proper spacing between eggs is crucial for proper air circulation and heat distribution.

3. Temperature and Humidity Maintenance

Monitor the temperature and humidity regularly. Most poultry eggs require a temperature of 99.5°F (37.5°C) and a humidity level of around 50-55% during incubation. Adjust the settings as needed to maintain these conditions.

4. Egg Rotation

Egg rotation is vital to ensure that the developing embryos receive an even supply of oxygen and nutrients. Most incubators have an automatic egg turner, but if not, manually turn the eggs at least three times a day.

5. Candling and Egg Inspection

Around day 7 and day 14 of incubation, candle the eggs again to check for signs of development and remove any non-viable ones. Candling allows you to identify and remove eggs that may have stopped developing.

6. Lockdown

On day 18, stop egg rotation and increase humidity to 65-70%. This period is called “lockdown” because you should disturb the eggs as little as possible until hatching. The chicks are getting ready to hatch, and any disruptions can be detrimental.

7. Hatching

Chicks usually start hatching around day 21. It’s essential to resist the urge to help them out of their shells. Hatching is a strenuous process that strengthens the chicks. Assisting can do more harm than good.

Caring for New Chicks

Once the chicks have hatched, they’ll need proper care to thrive:

1. Transfer to a Brooder

Move the newly hatched chicks to a brooder, which is a temperature-controlled enclosure with a heat source. Maintain a temperature of around 95°F (35°C) for the first week and gradually decrease it by five degrees each week until it matches the ambient temperature.

2. Nutrition

Provide chicks with access to fresh water and a high-quality chick starter feed. Ensure they have proper nutrition to support healthy growth.

3. Space and Ventilation

Make sure the brooder is spacious enough to accommodate the growing chicks. Provide proper ventilation to prevent moisture buildup, which can lead to health issues.

4. Supervision

Monitor the chicks closely, looking for signs of illness or distress. Address any issues promptly to ensure their well-being.

Troubleshooting Common Issues

Even with careful incubation, not every egg will successfully hatch. Here are some common problems and their potential causes:

1. Low Hatch Rate

Possible causes: Poor egg quality, temperature and humidity fluctuations, inadequate egg turning, or infection.

2. Early Deaths

Possible causes: Poor breeding stock, improper storage of eggs, or infection.

3. Late Deaths

Possible causes: Incorrect temperature and humidity levels during incubation, inadequate egg turning, or bacterial contamination.


Hatching poultry eggs successfully is both an art and a science. It requires careful attention to detail, patience, and the right equipment. By selecting the appropriate incubator, preparing your eggs meticulously, and following a well-defined incubation process, you can increase your chances of a successful hatch. Remember that each hatch is a learning experience, and with practice, you’ll become a skilled incubator, bringing new life into your poultry flock year after year.