What Can Chickens Eat: A Guide to a Nutritious and Varied Diet

Chickens are omnivorous creatures with a diverse palate, capable of consuming a wide range of foods. While they have their natural preferences, it’s important for chicken owners to provide a well-rounded diet to support their overall health and egg-laying capabilities.

In this article, we explore the world of chicken nutrition and answer the common question: “What can chickens eat?” From their natural diet to specific foods, treats, and feeding tips, we’ll guide you in providing a nutritious and varied menu for your feathered friends.

You may also want to read about the best chicken feed.

The Natural Diet of Chickens

Chickens, in their natural habitat, have access to a varied diet that consists of seeds, insects, worms, greens, and small amounts of fruits and vegetables. Their foraging behavior allows them to consume a balanced mix of protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Mimicking this natural diet can contribute to the overall health and well-being of your chickens.

Essential Nutrients for Chickens

Before diving into specific food options, it’s important to understand the essential nutrients that chickens require for optimal health:

  1. Protein: Chickens need high-quality protein for feather growth, muscle development, and egg production. Good protein sources include insects, worms, legumes, and soybean meal.
  2. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates provide energy for chickens. Grains like corn, wheat, barley, and oats are common carbohydrate sources in chicken diets.
  3. Fats: Fats are important for maintaining healthy skin, feathers, and egg production. Chicken feeds often contain added fats or oils to meet their dietary needs.
  4. Vitamins and Minerals: Chickens require a variety of vitamins and minerals, including vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and more. These can be obtained from a balanced diet and supplements if necessary.

Healthy Foods for Chickens

Chickens can enjoy a range of healthy foods that provide essential nutrients. Here are some examples of foods that are beneficial for chickens:

  1. Grains: Corn, wheat, barley, oats, and millet are nutritious grains that can be included in the chicken’s diet.
  2. Vegetables: Leafy greens like spinach, kale, and lettuce are excellent sources of vitamins. Other vegetables like carrots, zucchini, and pumpkins provide additional nutrients and variety.
  3. Fruits: Apples, berries, melons, and citrus fruits can be given in moderation as treats. They add natural sweetness and extra vitamins to the diet.
  4. Protein Sources: Insects, mealworms, earthworms, and fish meal are rich sources of protein that can be offered to chickens. Additionally, cooked eggs or small amounts of meat can be given as occasional treats.
what can chickens eat

Foods to Avoid for Chickens

While chickens have a versatile diet, there are certain foods that should be avoided. These include:

  1. Toxic Foods: Avocado, chocolate, onions, garlic, and rhubarb are toxic to chickens and should never be fed to them.
  2. Junk Foods: Processed foods, sugary snacks, and salty treats should be avoided as they offer little nutritional value and can negatively impact chicken health.
  3. Raw Beans: Raw or undercooked beans contain toxins that can be harmful to chickens. Always cook beans thoroughly before feeding them to your flock.
  4. Spoiled or Moldy Food: Chickens should not be given spoiled or moldy food, as it can lead to illness.

Treats and Snacks for Chickens

Treats can be a fun way to supplement a chicken’s diet and provide additional enrichment. Here are some healthy treats and snacks for chickens:

  1. Mealworms: Dried mealworms are a popular treat among chickens. They are protein-rich and can be offered in moderation.
  2. Herbs: Fresh or dried herbs like parsley, basil, oregano, and mint can be added to the diet. They offer flavor and potential health benefits.
  3. Garden Scraps: Leftover vegetable and fruit scraps from your kitchen can be shared with chickens. Ensure they are fresh and free from any harmful substances.
  4. Yogurt: Plain, unsweetened yogurt can be given as an occasional treat. It contains beneficial probiotics and can help promote healthy digestion.

Feeding Chickens in Different Life Stages

Chickens have varying nutritional needs at different stages of their lives. Here are some considerations for feeding chickens in different life stages:

  1. Chicks: Young chicks require a specialized diet high in protein. Starter feeds formulated specifically for chicks are readily available and provide the necessary nutrients for growth.
  2. Pullets and Hens: As chickens mature, their dietary needs change. Transitioning to grower and layer feeds ensures they receive the appropriate balance of nutrients to support egg production and overall health.

Feeding Tips and Best Practices

To ensure your chickens receive a healthy and balanced diet, consider the following feeding tips and best practices:

  1. Free-Range or Controlled Foraging: If possible, allow your chickens to free-range or have access to a controlled foraging area. This allows them to supplement their diet with insects, worms, and greens.
  2. Access to Clean Water: Provide fresh, clean water at all times to keep chickens hydrated and aid digestion.
  3. Feed Management: Avoid overfeeding or underfeeding. Monitor the amount of feed provided, and adjust according to your chickens’ needs.
  4. Quality Feeds: Choose high-quality commercial feeds that are specifically formulated for the appropriate life stage of your chickens. These feeds are balanced and provide the necessary nutrients.

Kitchen Scraps for Chickens

Kitchen scraps can be a valuable addition to a chicken’s diet, reducing waste and providing extra nutrients. However, not all scraps are suitable for chickens. Here are some kitchen scraps that can be safely given to chickens:

  1. Fruit and Vegetable Trimmings: Leftover peels, cores, and trimmings from fruits and vegetables can be shared with chickens.
  2. Cooked Rice and Pasta: Small amounts of cooked rice or pasta can be given as a treat. Avoid using seasoned or heavily salted varieties.
  3. Bread and Cereal: Stale bread, unsweetened cereals, and cooked oatmeal can be provided in moderation.

Organic and Non-GMO Feeding Options

For those seeking organic or non-GMO feeding options for their chickens, there are specialized feeds available in the market. These feeds are made with certified organic ingredients or non-genetically modified organisms (non-GMO) and can be an excellent choice for those whoprefer to provide their chickens with organic or non-GMO diets. Look for reputable brands that adhere to strict standards and certifications.

Homemade Chicken Feed Recipes

Some chicken owners prefer to make their own chicken feed to have more control over the ingredients. Here’s a simple recipe for homemade chicken feed:


  • 4 parts whole corn
  • 4 parts whole wheat
  • 2 parts soybean meal
  • 2 parts fish meal
  • 1 part crushed oyster shells (for calcium)
  • 1 part poultry vitamin and mineral supplement


  1. Mix all the ingredients thoroughly in a clean container.
  2. Store the homemade feed in a cool, dry place in an airtight container.
  3. Feed the homemade feed to your chickens, adjusting the quantity based on their nutritional needs and appetites.

Note: It’s important to consult with a poultry nutritionist or veterinarian to ensure the homemade feed meets the specific dietary requirements of your chickens.


Providing a nutritious and varied diet is essential for the health, well-being, and productivity of your chickens. From grains and vegetables to protein sources and treats, there is a wide array of foods that chickens can enjoy. However, it’s important to avoid toxic or harmful foods and maintain a balanced diet that meets their nutritional needs at different life stages. By understanding what chickens can eat and implementing feeding best practices, you can ensure happy and healthy chickens that reward you with delicious eggs and vibrant personalities.


1. Can chickens eat citrus fruits? Yes, chickens can eat citrus fruits like oranges and lemons in moderation. Citrus fruits provide vitamins and add variety to their diet. However, avoid giving them excessive amounts as it can lead to digestive issues.

2. Can chickens eat onions and garlic? No, chickens should not be fed onions or garlic as they can be toxic and can negatively affect their health.

3. Can chickens eat bread? Small amounts of stale bread can be given to chickens as a treat. However, it should not make up a significant portion of their diet as it lacks the necessary nutrients.

4. Can chickens eat grass clippings? Chickens can eat fresh grass clippings in moderation. However, avoid giving them clippings from lawns that have been treated with herbicides or pesticides.

5. Can chickens eat meat? Chickens are omnivores and can consume small amounts of cooked meat as a treat. However, it’s important to avoid giving them processed meats or excessive amounts of meat, as it can disrupt their balanced diet.

About the Author
The Poultry Feed Team

The Poultry Feed Team

I am Ehsan from The Poultry Feed Team. We all started out as poultry novices ourselves, so we know just how confusing it can be to try and figure everything out on your own. That's why we're here! We want to help you become the best caretaker of these lovely feathered animals.