How to Incubate Chicken Eggs: A Comprehensive Guide

Incubating chicken eggs is an exciting and rewarding experience that allows you to witness the miracle of life firsthand. Whether you want to expand your flock or experience the joy of raising chicks, successful incubation is crucial.

How to Incubate Chicken Eggs? This article will guide you through the process, from preparing for incubation to caring for the developing embryos and hatching healthy chicks.

You may also want to read about the best chicken incubator.

Preparing for Incubation

How to Incubate Chicken Eggs? Before starting the incubation process, there are several important steps to take:

Choosing Fertile Eggs

Selecting fertile eggs is vital for successful incubation. Ensure you have a reliable source, such as a trusted breeder or healthy backyard flock. Choose eggs that are clean, uncracked, and of the appropriate size for the breed.

How to Incubate Chicken Eggs

How to Incubate Chicken Eggs?

Collecting and Storing Eggs

Collect eggs daily and store them properly before incubation. Place the eggs in a cool, dry location, ideally with a temperature between 50-65°F (10-18°C). Store them with the pointed end down in an egg carton or an egg storage tray, rotating them gently twice a day.

Setting up the Incubator

Prepare the incubator according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Clean and disinfect the incubator, ensuring it is free from any debris or contaminants. Set the temperature and humidity levels as recommended for chicken eggs.

Incubation Process

The incubation process requires careful monitoring and adjustments to create an ideal environment for embryo development:

Temperature and Humidity Control

Maintain a consistent temperature of around 99.5°F (37.5°C) throughout the incubation period. Monitor and adjust the temperature as needed, considering factors like the incubator’s location and external temperature. Aim for a relative humidity level of 50-55% during the first 18 days, increasing it to 65-70% during the final days.

Turning the Eggs

Eggs need to be turned regularly to prevent the embryo from sticking to the shell and to ensure even development. Turn the eggs manually or use an automatic egg turner if your incubator is equipped with one. Rotate the eggs at least three times a day, ensuring they receive consistent care.

How to Incubate Chicken Eggs

How to Incubate Chicken Eggs?

Candling and Monitoring

Candling is the process of shining a light through the egg to monitor the embryo’s development. Perform candling around day 7 and again around day 14 to check for signs of fertility and discard any non-viable eggs. Regularly monitor the temperature, humidity, and egg rotation throughout the incubation period.

Caring for Developing Embryos

To ensure the optimal development of the embryos, pay attention to the following factors:

Maintaining Proper Temperature and Humidity

Maintain the temperature and humidity levels within the recommended range, making necessary adjustments when required. Fluctuations in temperature and humidity can impact embryo development, so strive for stability.

Providing Ventilation

Proper ventilation is crucial for the developing embryos. Ensure the incubator has adequate ventilation to allow fresh air exchange while preventing excessive drafts that may harm the developing chicks.

Ensuring Egg Rotation

Continue rotating the eggs until day 18 of incubation. This helps prevent the embryos from sticking to the shell and encourages proper development. After day 18, stop turning the eggs to allow the chicks to position themselves for hatching.

Hatching and Caring for Chicks

As the incubation period nears its end, it’s time to prepare for hatching and caring for the newly hatched chicks:

Identifying Signs of Hatching

Watch for signs of hatching, including chirping sounds, pips (small holes) in the eggshell, and movement inside the egg. Avoid disturbing the eggs excessively during this critical period.

Assisting with Hatching

While it’s best to allow chicks to hatch naturally, in some cases, intervention may be necessary. If a chick is struggling to hatch or if the membrane has dried out and adhered to the chick, you can assist by carefully peeling away the shell or moistening the membrane.

Transferring Chicks to a Brooder

Once the chicks have hatched, transfer them to a clean, warm brooder. Provide them with a heat source, such as a heat lamp, and ensure they have access to fresh water and chick starter feed. Monitor their health and well-being closely during the first few weeks.


How to Incubate Chicken Eggs? Incubating chicken eggs is a fascinating journey that requires attention to detail and proper care. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you can increase the chances of successful hatching and enjoy the experience of raising your own chicks.


1. What is the average incubation period for chicken eggs? The average incubation period for chicken eggs is 21 days. However, slight variations may occur depending on the breed.

2. Can I incubate eggs from different chicken breeds together? Yes, you can incubate eggs from different breeds together. However, keep in mind that the incubation requirements may vary slightly for different breeds.

3. Do I need to clean the eggs before incubation? It’s generally recommended not to wash the eggs before incubation as it removes the natural protective coating. Only clean visibly dirty eggs using a dry cloth or fine-grit sandpaper.

4. What should the humidity level be during the final days of incubation? During the final days of incubation, increase the humidity level to 65-70%. This helps soften the eggshell and facilitates the hatching process.

5. Can I open the incubator during incubation? It’s best to minimize opening the incubator during incubation to maintain stable temperature and humidity levels. However, occasional monitoring and necessary adjustments can be made while being mindful of the impact on the developing embryos.

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